The frequency of occurrence of epilepsy is an average of 10.5%. Epileptic seizures are caused by abnormal discharges in the brain and appear temporary disturbance of motor, sensory, autonomic or mental functions.
The common people belief that epilepsy is an incurable disease, is erroneous. Application of modern antiepileptic drugs allow you to completely get rid of the attacks of 65% of patients and significantly reduce the number of attacks is still at 20%. The basis of the treatment is prolonged daily medication with health and medical regular control investigations and medical examinations.
Due to the occurrence of epilepsy are classified as "symptomatic" (when it is possible to detect structural brain defects, such as a cyst, tumor, hemorrhage, developmental defects), idiopathic (when there is a genetic predisposition and structural changes in the brain are missing) and cryptogenic (when the cause of the disease identified you can not).
The manifestations of seizures vary from generalized seizures to subtle people around the patient's internal state changes.
There are focal seizures associated with the occurrence of an electrical discharge in a certain limited area of the cortex of the brain and generalized seizures, in which both are involved in the discharge of the two hemispheres of the brain. When focal seizures may experience seizures or peculiar sensations (such as numbness) in certain parts of the body (face, hands, feet, etc.). Also, focal seizures may occur in short bouts of visual, auditory, olfactory or gustatory hallucinations. Consciousness during these seizures can be saved, in this case, the patient describes in detail his feelings. The duration of partial seizures usually not more than 30 seconds. Generalized seizures are divided into convulsive and non-convulsive (absences).
For others the most frightening are generalized seizures. At the beginning of the attack (the tonic phase) there is tension of muscles, short stop breathing, often a piercing scream, perhaps biting language. After 10-20 seconds. clonic phase begins when the muscle contractions are alternated with their relaxation. At the end of clonic phase incontinence is often observed. Seizures usually disappear spontaneously after a few minutes (2-5 minutes). Then comes postpristupny period characterized by drowsiness, confusion, headache and sna.Bessudorozhnye onset generalized seizures are called absence seizures. They occur almost exclusively in childhood and early adolescence. The child suddenly stops and stares at one point, it seems to look away. There may be shielding the eyes, trembling eyelids, light throwing the head back. Attacks last only a few seconds (5-20 seconds) and often go unnoticed.
There are about 40 different forms of epilepsy and different types of attacks. In addition, for each form of treatment it developed its own scheme. It is therefore important for the physician not only because the diagnosis of epilepsy, but also to determine its shape. The main diagnostic methods are electroencephalography and computer or magnetic resonance imaging. Normal (routine) EEG recording method involves no more than 15 minutes of recording, and is used for mass research. According to most researchers for the diagnosis of epilepsy most informative EEG monitoring, which is an EEG recording for a long time (from 1 to 12 hours, with the inclusion of a period of sleep and wakefulness).
If you notice in yourself or your loved ones symptoms of epilepsy, try contacting a neurologist as soon as possible. If the attack has happened for the first time, accompanied by a respiratory disorder or lasts more than 5 minutes, call "ambulance." Remove any hard objects that are in close proximity to the patient, beneath the head is soft, flat object, move the person to a side polozhenie.Uderzhivat patients should not be during an epileptic seizure. Fix the start of an epileptic attack, to set its duration.
Patients who receive antiepileptic therapy and planning a pregnancy, you should inform your doctor. Perhaps for a successful pregnancy will require a change of therapy or change the dose of medicines. If possible, try to see an obstetrician-gynecologist who has experience of pregnancy and childbirth in women with this diagnosis. Before becoming pregnant should also apply to the medical and genetic counseling.