Fungal infections


Due primarily to the fact that all fungi are capable of forming spores. This enables them to survive unfavorable conditions for a long time to maintain the viability and the ability to infect diflucan-fluconazole a susceptible organism. Also, when infected humans and at a sufficient activity of the immune system of the fungi can remain for a long time in a latent (dormant) state does not prove itself. But when, for various reasons a reduction in activity of the immune system is activated infection.

Classification of fungal infections

By type of pathogen fungal infections are classified into these forms:

  • Candida infections (fungus genus Candida);

  • trihofitii (fungal infection of the skin, nails and mucous membranes);

  • cryptococcus (a fungus affects the lungs and internal organs);

  • aspergillosis (a contagious lung disease due to lower immunity).

Localization fungal infections are divided into two groups:

  • superficial fungal infection - infection occurs when skin lesions and mucous membranes, without the spread of the pathogen in the internal organs (infections caused by fungi genus Candida, Trichophyton);

  • systemic fungal infections - of these diseases is characterized by first defeat of the internal organs and the dissemination of microorganisms from blood (cryptococcosis, aspergillosis).

Importantly, the systemic fungal infections are on the background of immunodeficiency states. Since the human body every day gets a large number of spores of the fungus Aspergillus, but the disease does not develop because of the cellular immunity. However, at lower Aspergillus immunity is activated and, consequently, systemic fungal infection.

The mechanism of development of fungal infections

All fungi are extracellular parasites. After falling spores or mycelium in favorable conditions, it is their germination in vegetative form that reproduces, feeds on nutrients from the body and reproductive tissues with the release of new spores and mycelia, which are released into the environment. Thus allocated metabolic products that have allergenic and toxic properties cause local and general reactions such as inflammation and toxic. The protection of the human body is due to the cellular component of the immune system, but not the complete destruction is only possible through the use of antifungal agents.

Symptoms of fungal infections

Manifestations depend on the type and on the surface or systemic fungal infection.

When superficial fungal infections of the fore local symptoms (on the skin or mucous membranes):

  • redness - the main symptom of the skin and mucous membranes, indicates the presence of inflammation (candidiasis, trihofitia);;

  • itching - the second most common symptom is also localized at the site of infection, it can be unbearable, worse at night (trihofitia);

  • violation of hair growth or hair loss - pathognomonic (characteristic of the disease), a symptom of ringworm;

  • peeling of the skin - the growth of the fungus in the skin causes the reactive hyperkeratosis, the death of cells in the epidermis, it leads to the accumulation of dead cells and desquamation (trihofitia);

  • thickening and deformation (violation of nail forms) - in the case of a fungal infection of the nail plate, the mechanism of the appearance of this symptom is hyperkeratosis (increased synthesis "building blocks" of the nail plate - keratin);

  • the appearance of white, cheesy plaque on the inflamed mucosa - a characteristic symptom of candidiasis (thrush).

Symptoms of systemic fungal infections are determined by a body or group of bodies overwhelmed:

  • cough - accompanies lung disease aspergillosis and cryptococcosis, a cough is present for a long time, can be dry;

  • violation of cardiac rhythm;

  • the development of renal failure;

  • fever - develops when the fungus enters the bloodstream and his hematogenous (with blood) propagation through the body.